The Complete Guide on How to Sell

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An Introduction to the Art of Selling

An introduction on how to sellYou might be asking yourself “How do I sell?” or “How can I improve my sales?”

The popular view is that only some people can sell, that salesmen are born, not made. The reality is that anyone can sell, and that the art of selling can be learnt in the same way any process can be learnt. Certainly, some people will have a natural aptitude for selling in the same way that some people have an aptitude for music, or foreign languages, but anybody can achieve competence in selling if they want to.

The Selling Process

Our ‘How to Sell’ guide will cover the following sales steps for success:

If you’re the shy and introverted type, you will have to overcome some personal traits to follow these sales steps successfully. You’ll need to be brave in order to ask tough questions and overcome your fear of rejection. And you’ll need to break some social taboos about what nice people are allowed to do. What you don’t have to be is the media’s clichéd depiction of a sales person: pushy, untrustworthy, always on the make. Someone who would sell their grandmother. Such people do exist, but professional sales people work with their customers to make sure they buy the solution they need, and come back and buy more because they are happy.

Once you’ve worked out how to sell, you’ll wonder how you survived without it. Those same skills are those you’ll find hugely useful when negotiating with any person, be they your boss, employees, partner or child. How many times have you heard the expression “selling the idea”? It means what it says, as any politician will tell you.

Selling is a mix of skills and techniques: a process that once understood, is obvious; interpersonal skills that are more about human psychology; and perseverance.

An introduction to selling info-graphic covering qualification, facts, sales demos, objections and sales closing

Follow each step in order and in more detail in the next sections.

Sales Qualification

How to sell: sales qualificationAccording to a recent sales case study, 67% of lost sales are as a result of sales reps not properly qualifying their potential customers before taking them through the full sales process.

So before you spend a lot of time on a prospect, you want to know if they are likely to buy. So there are four simple tests:

  1. Are they the decision maker? Do they have the power to sign the purchase order? Or are they an underling who has no purchasing power?
  2. Do they have the budget? Can they afford your product or service?
  3. Are they looking for what you have? If they need features or capabilities that you don’t have, you’re unlikely to make the sale.
  4. Are they looking to buy now? If they are just looking but don’t want to buy for a year, they won’t help you reach your sales target.

Listen to what the customer is telling you

How to sell: listen to your customer when qualifying themSo how do you find out these facts? In many cases, they’ll tell you in their first conversation, as the lead comes in.

“Hello, I’m the finance director of so-and-so plc and I’m looking for a simple CRM system for about ten users. Need to be up and running in three months’ time.” That’s just passed all the tests for Really Simple Systems, apart from the price but as they are a plc that shouldn’t be a problem.

“Hello, I’m an intern at Bob’s Plumbing and I’m just doing some initial research for a CRM system we can run on our tills” patently fails.

Sales techniques

Good sales people spend more time listening than talking, and in most cases you’ll only get some of the qualification questions answered unprompted. So when they’ve stopped telling you what they want, make sure to ask a mixture of closed and open questions to get the information you need. You might ask the following: What’s your job title? Do you have a budget in mind? When would you want the system installed? Any particular requirements that are important?

A good salesperson will develop words and phrases that will make these questions seem unthreatening and natural.

Why does the car salesman always ask you what car you are driving at the moment? Because if you’re driving a Ford he’s not going to offer you a test drive of a top range BMW on his Saturday morning.

If you would like to know more about qualifying potential leads, provides a useful article that breaks the process into fourteen easy steps, or we recommend you read this interesting blog by

Sales Fact Finding

Sales Fact FindingAfter qualification, you now know that the prospect is worth time selling to. So now you have to find out their more detailed requirements.

Some people will know what they want and what the offerings in that market all do. Others may need educating. For example, a prospective CRM purchaser may have used CRM systems in previous companies, knows what they do and has a pretty good idea of what they want from such a system. Another may say something like “We’re looking for a CRM system that covers our whole business process including invoicing and delivery routing logistics.”

In the IT world, invoicing is usually done by accounting products and logistics by specialist systems. Therefore we need to educate the prospect and then help them with their CRM choice, as well as pointing them to products that do what the CRM doesn’t.

What if Qualification Fails?

If the prospect wants a feature that your offering doesn’t have, you can:

  • Try and persuade them its isn’t needed; or
  • Find a work around; or
  • Try and minimise its importance to their decision; or
  • Qualify out

There’s no point continuing the sales process if you know that the prospect has a requirement that is key to them and that you can’t meet. For example, every now and then we get people saying that they love our CRM, but they want to run it in-house. We’re a Cloud-based CRM system and we can’t do that. So unless we can persuade them that running their CRM on our servers is fine, there is no point continuing the conversation.

Looking for Opportunities

Looking For Opportunities By Sales Fact FindingAfter they have told you what they want, and assuming you haven’t qualified them out, you have the opportunity to introduce some new features to their list that the competition doesn’t have. If you can persuade them that a certain USP you’re offering is a mandatory requirement, then you’re going to do well against the competition! For example, we often ask potential CRM customers “Do you want mass emailing integrated into the CRM?” None of our main competitors offer this. If the customer decides to add that feature to their list then we’ll be well placed against them.

Finally, run through the requirements list and confirm with the prospect that this is what they want, and all they want. Then roll out your conditional close “If I can show you that our product does all of this, when will you place the order?”.

If you would like to learn more about fact finding for sales, Survey Gizmo has a blog dedicated to offering tips and tricks to make your research more efficient, and Inside Sales Box offers a guide so you can research a prospect within five minutes!

The Sales Demonstration

sales demonstrationAfter qualification and fact finding, you know that the prospect is worth time selling to. Now’s the time to demonstrate why they should buy your product or service.

Some people will know what they want and what the offerings in that market all do. Others may need educating. For example, a prospective CRM purchaser may have used CRM systems in previous companies. They know what they do and has a pretty good idea of what they want from such a system. Another may say something like “We’re looking for a CRM system that covers our whole business process including invoicing and delivery routing logistics.”

In the IT world, invoicing is usually done by accounting products and logistics by specialist systems. We need to educate the prospect and then help them with their CRM choice, as well as pointing them to products that do what the CRM doesn’t. At the end of the demonstration you should ask for feedback and again do a trial Close. For example, “Can you see this CRM system working for you?”, or  “How does this compare to other products that you’ve seen?”.

You’ll probably not close the prospect at this stage, however, a great sales demo will go great lengths to securing your business the deal even if you don’t meet all of the leads requirements. Your product features will become less important if the prospect believes you’re invested in helping them rather than just making the sale.

If you’d like to learn more, Sales Hacker provides a great tutorial on how to develop a compelling sales demonstration. You can also find out how to become a better demonstrator by reading tips from stage performers on Marketo.

Overcoming Objections

overcoming objectionsThe Overcoming Objections stage is about listening to the prospect’s concerns about the product or service after they have some knowledge of it. For example, they may say “It doesn’t do this” or “it is more than I have budgeted” and “I don’t like the way it handles this issue”. The role of the sales person is to overcome or minimalise those problems.

Of course, not all objections need to be overcome. If your competitors have the same limitations or would fail to meet the prospect’s other more important requirements.

In text book selling, the Overcoming Objection sales stage comes after the Demonstration and before Closing. However, in reality the prospect can introduce Objections at any time in the sales cycle.

Here are some typical objections and some solutions to overcoming them:

Price is too expensive

  • Differentiate your offering from cheaper alternatives: features, service, customer satisfaction
  • Try to minimise e.g. “an extra £10k over five years is only £38 a week!”
  • De-scope the offering: take out features not needed in return for a lower price
  • Discount in return for quick sale or customer endorsement
  • Offer different financing or payment terms, perhaps across multiple budget years such as staged payments or leasing

Product isn’t a complete match for requirements

  • Look for workarounds
  • Try to minimise importance versus 100% fit for everything else
  • Point out that nobody else does that either

Competitor has more features

  • List features that you have, and that the competitor doesn’t
  • Point out any restrictions or drawbacks of those features
  • Disprove, if possible, e.g. “they say they do that, but actually they only do this”
  • Minimise desirability of their features

Your company is too small or too new

  • Provide references of happy customers
  • Point out they’ll get better customer service from a small company
  • As an early customer of a new company, their needs can help shape the product
  • They’ll be ahead of the competition by going with a leading edge product

Prospect is not ready to place order

  • Work prospect’s time scales back to prove that they need to order sooner than they thought
  • Find or create a Compelling Event that will give them a reason to buy now

If you would like to learn more, the Rain Group offer an excellent 4 step guide to overcoming possible objections to get you closer to closing possible sales.

Closing the deal

Closing the DealFor many sales novices the words “closing the deal” fills them with dread. That scary and secret process that only seasoned sales people know how to do without trembling in their shoes. It doesn’t have to be that way, if you have run though the other stages correctly.In most B2B sales the prospect will make up their mind to purchase over the time it takes to evaluate and maybe test your proposal.

Building Confidence

During that time you need to build their confidence in your offering (and in you and your company) until is is complete. You need to grow your personal relationship with the prospect so that they trust you enough to believe you when you say that your offering will work for them.

Closing the deal shouldn’t come out of the blue and the final close should be a natural progression from all the little/conditional closes that you’ve done through the sales process.

If you’ve done conditional closes at the end of Fact Finding and throughout the Demonstration, and maybe during Objection Overcoming as well, you should have led the prospect into a position that the final commit to purchase is a small, natural step, not a big decision.

Having said that, there are numerous ways of leading the prospect into committing.

Closing Techniques

In the jargon of sales methodologies, there are a number of named closing techniques. Here are the main ones:

Direct Close

You simply ask for the order. For example, “Are you ready to go ahead?”

Assumptive Close

You just assume the prospect is going ahead and let them wriggle out of it if they dare. For example, “Let me fill out this order form and then you can get going.”

Conditional Close

You set the criteria for their decision to close later. For example, “If we can meet all your requirements within budget, will you go ahead?”, or “If I can get it delivered this week, can you place an order today?” and “If I throw the roof rack in for free, can you commit to purchasing?”

Alternative Close

You offer them alternatives, but not buying isn’t one of them. For example, “Do you want the red one or the green one?” or “Shall we deliver this week or next?”

Puppy Dog Sale

Not really a close but a technique that creates a Compelling Event at the end of the trial. For example, “Try it free for 30 days, with no obligation!”. Beloved of software vendors, this is named after the pet shop that will let you take a cute little puppy home for the weekend – there is no way your kids will let you take it back to the shop!

As with all canned sales techniques, you need to adapt the words to suit the situation and to make them your own so they don’t sound artificial or overly pushy.

The Final Close

How to close the dealClosing, asking the customer to commit to a purchase is often seen as the hardest part of the sales process. It shouldn’t be if you’ve done the homework and the customer is ready to buy.

Most people spend time weighing up the pros and cons and then emotionally commit to purchase. Some prospects will get to a certain point and then just say “Fine; let’s do this”. Others will need help committing because they find making decisions scary, especially if there is no deadline for making a decision (see Compelling Event).

If you’ve followed the process then you will have done lots of little Conditional Closes throughout all the sales stages, so when you finally ask for the order with a Direct Close the prospect is emotionally prepared and is happy to say “Yes”.

If you would like to research more about the art of closing sales, Grant Cardone offers an in-depth or “ultimate” guide on his website!

How to Sell Summary

How to Sell SummaryAs we said at the start of this short course, the popular view is that only some people can sell, and that salesmen are born, not made. We hope now that we’ve demonstrated that anyone can sell, and that the art of selling can be learnt in the same way as any process.

This classic approach divides the sales process into five stages: Qualification, Fact Finding, the Demonstration, Overcoming Objections and Closing. In reality, although you may try to run through those stages in that order, you should be thinking about all of those stages all of the time:

Juggling the Stages

You may “qualify out” in the middle of the demonstration when the prospect announces a key requirement that simply can’t be met.

You might be overcoming objections when qualifying the prospect and they are saying that the price is too high.

The prospect may announce some new requirement in the middle of the demonstration that needs further investigation.

There’s a sales saying “Always be Closing” and that is true, you should be doing mini-closes throughout the whole process to make sure the prospect is still on track for the final order.

Keeping Sight of the Objective

So you need to be alert through the whole sales cycle. Be aware of any new information that might come up, and be prepared to branch off and qualify, fact find, close, or do a mini-demo.

Always you keep your eye on the final objective of getting a purchase order. Keep steering the process back towards that goal and you’ll minimise the chances of getting lost during the sales cycle. You will finally close the deal.

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About the Author

Nick Leong

Nick Leong

Hailing from Surrey, Nick specialises in Campaign Management, PPC, SEO, and Content Creation as the Digital Marketing Executive for Really Simple Systems.